Résumé : Ubiquitous in the aquatic environment, sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are considered one of the dominant microorganisms involved in the degradation of sulphate. This study focused on the spatial and temporal distributions of SRB in the Scirpus triquter rhizosphere sediments with a comparison to non-rhizosphere sediments and evaluated the implication of SRB to the bioavailability of metals in the Yangtze Estuary. The results showed that taking dsrB as the target gene, SRB abundances in rhizosphere sediments were significantly higher than those in non-rhizosphere sediments (P<0.01). SRB abundances were relatively higher in April and January than other seasons. Moreover, redundancy discriminate analysis (RDA) results indicated that sulphate, pH and TOC were the major environmental factors affecting the SRB abundance in rhizosphere sediments. The concentrations of most metals were significantly related to SRB abundance, and sulphide concentrations showed a significantly positive correlation to metal concentrations, indicating metal sulphide/metal associated sulphide could be regulated by SRB. Furthermore, electron microscope analysis found that nano-sized metal sulphide particles were ubiquitous in rhizosphere sediments and could be further taken up by plants. This study provides new insights into the immobilization and removal of heavy metals and the ecological value of the sulphate-reducing bacteria in the Yangtze Estuary.