Résumé : Biofilms can be produced by multiple species or by a single strain of bacteria. The biofilm state enhances the resistance of the resident microorganisms to antimicrobial agents by producing extracellular polymeric substances. Typically, antibiotics are used to stop the growth of bacteria, but emerging resistance has limited their effectiveness. Bacteria in biofilms are less susceptible to antibiotics compared with their free-floating state, as biofilms impair antibiotic penetration. To obviate this challenge, non-antibiotic antimicrobial agents are needed. This review describes two classes of these agents, namely antimicrobial nanoparticles and antimicrobial peptides. Applications of these antimicrobials in the food industry and medical applications are discussed, and the directions for future research are highlighted.