Résumé : Biofouling, the unwanted growth of microorganisms on submerged surfaces, has appeared as a significant impediment for underwater structures, water vessels, and medical devices. For fixing the biofouling issue, modification of the submerged surface is being experimented as a non-toxic approach worldwide. This technique necessitated altering the surface topography and roughness and developing a surface with a nano- to micro-structured pattern. The main objective of this study is to review the recent advancements in surface modification and hydrodynamic analysis concerning biofouling control. This study described the occurrence of the biofouling process, techniques suitable for biofouling control, and current state of research advancements comprehensively. Different biofilms under various hydrodynamic conditions have also been outlined in this study. Scenarios of biomimetic surfaces and underwater super-hydrophobicity, locomotion of microorganisms, nano- and micro-hydrodynamics on various surfaces around microorganisms, and material stiffness were explained thoroughly. The review also documented the approaches to inhibit the initial settlement of microorganisms and prolong the subsequent biofilm formation process for patterned surfaces. Though it is well documented that biofouling can be controlled to various degrees with different nano- and micro-structured patterned surfaces, the understanding of the underlying mechanism is still imprecise. Therefore, this review strived to present the possibilities of implementing the patterned surfaces as a physical deterrent against the settlement of fouling organisms and developing an active microfluidic environment to inhibit the initial bacterial settlement process. In general, microtopography equivalent to that of bacterial cells influences attachment via hydrodynamics, topography-induced cell placement, and air-entrapment, whereas nanotopography influences physicochemical forces through macromolecular conditioning.